ความเห็นเพิ่มเติมที่ 9 19 ส.ค. 2552 (16:34)
Using Digital Comics To Enhance eLearning
On Anti-Corruption Education
Vincent Didiek Wiet Aryanto
Professor of MIS at the Graduate School of Business Management
Soegijapranata Catholic University Semarang Indonesia.
This paper is based on the community service done by Soegijapranata Catholic
University in alliance with the Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication. This
community service is carried out on fifteen private as well as public junior high schools
in Semarang Indonesia. Corruption being one of the biggest problems in Indonesia
nowaday, therefore, giving creative approach to the Junior High School students
is a new approach in Indonesia. This article will examine the preliminary implementation
of incorporating a digital comics on anticorruption through eLearning. The preliminary analysis of the case study is very effective in the sense that students are very enthusiastic to learn by using digital comics and games, however, some obstacles such as internet speed, and teachers reluctance to change imerge. Keywords: eLearning, anti-corruption digital comics, computer-assisted education, internet.
Indonesia has consistently ranked at the very top of various indices of corruption, and
most recently been listed by Transparency International at 135 out of 145 in its 2006
corruption perception reports. Education is central to preventing corruption. Even clear
laws and regulations and well designed institutions will not be able to prevent corruption, unless citizens actively demand accountability from the government. The attitudes and expectations of citizens are crucial in building responsive public governance. Ethics education for young
people can help break the entrenched cycle of corruption in Indonesia, as todays youth will be the potential leaders of tomorrow. More importantly, the environment in which
youngsters grow up plays a decisive role in shaping their attitudes. Ethics education must
be a part of broader effort to improve governance and reduce corruption. Within this framework, children must have an appropriate and conducive learning
environment that values integrity. Thus in order to be credible, anti-corruption teaching
must relate to the daily lives of the students and address real life ethical dilemmas,
conflict of interest, corruption cases and using digital comics to enhance creative
learning. High school students grow up playing digital games. Most of them are
comfortable with the media and are becoming part of their culture. Students
enthusiasism in playing digital games can enhance creative eLearning.
Digital games, as a matter of fact, become longstanding feature of world
culture. Despite the fact that highschool students enjoy playing these games, they are
seldom used to enrich education. In addition, traditional views believe that digital games
should not be used in education for some reasons e.g., games can be addicting and can
promote violence. Digital games should be used as a tool for supplementing the
curriculum rather than supplant it. However, educators can harness the great learning
potential of digital games, enabling students to learn by exploring virtual worlds and
solving problems without realizing they are learning (Green & McNeese, 2007). Digital
games have been around for over 25 years (Bryce & Rutter, 2003), today's students
grew up playing digital games as part of their culture. On average, the children between 2
and 18 years of age spend 20 to 33 minutes a day playing digital games. According to
Baranich & Curie (2004), playing games challenges students, arouses their curiosity,
develops their creativity and brings great pleasure and sense of accomplishment.
When adults and children are having fun, they are more willing to pay attention,
participate enthusiastically, and since their stress level is lower, they are more receptive
to learning. The positive emotion of laughter is tied to positive emotions that allow the brain to make better perceptual maps. Educators and academicians deal with challenge on how they formulate eLearning (Huynh, 2005; Cheng, 2006). The eLearning development is vital for education and training. Several aspects have led to the increasing importance of content
development (ANTA, 2003). There are many definitions in the literature with regard to the
eLearning concepts. eLearning are specific group of users (eLearners) (Ong et al., 2004).
eLearning includes the transmission of teaching materials, such as sending
multimedia images, reviewing books online, transmitting series of courses, such as
computer-based and web-based learning (Cheng, 2006). The term eLearning refers a
wide set of applications and processes as well as computer-based learning, web-based
learning, virtual classrooms, broadcast televisions, CD-ROMs, digital collaboration,
audio visual aids, e-mail, film, internet/intranet/extranet networks, video, wireless technologies, digital video disk, teleconferencing, chat rooms, web conferencing. Three most important
eLearning types are depicted as follows (Desanctis et al., 2003).
1. Video-conference classrooms: these eliminate the boundaries of placedependent,
face to face classrooms so that two or more distinct social networks can be joined together. This
technology offers a bridge for connecting face to face groups, with the idea that disparate local can think and act as one ( we suppose here that students are in physical classrooms, for instance at a college or university, and not in a virtual setting, such as when participants attend from home).
2. Online communities: these are open, internet-based forum that anybody can join to argue themes of common interest. These online societies are not necessarily dedicated to learning: for instance, some are just for entertainment and others are to produce software products (e.g.,Linux).
3. Group discussion spaces: these provide a site for a working group, such as a project team, consulting team, or student learning team. The discussion space may involve places to store group documents and track team progress; often the group can modify the design of the space to
meet its special needs or requirements. Effective online interaction is a challenge not only for the students, but also for the online teacher, or e-moderator (Sims, 2003). The role of e-moderator is not simply to provide adequate resources, but rather to successfully facilitate online interaction is important (Sims, 2003; Thurmond & Wambach, 2004).
Since the beginning of 2006, Anti Corruption and Governance Unit, under the Institute of Research & Community Services, Soegijapranata Catholic University in Semarang Indonesia in co-operation with Indonesian Commission on Corruption Eradication has been undertaking
community services in fifteen public and private junior high schools in Semarang city Indonesia. The program aims at increasing awareness among high school students to have anti corruption awareness. Unlike the previous program, the new approach has been completely different as it enables the students to learn interactively. Prior to the implementation program, teachers and
lectures underwent an intensive training for trainers (T.O.T) in the Netherlands under the
auspice of Netherland Education Center on 2005. Afterwards, T.O.T participants trained
teacher at respective school to be the facilitator and e-moderator. Modules and comics at the first place, were designed by selected students and teachers, these were designed to stimulate their experiencial learning in which students should get involved at the process of learning. Areas of
course content development are as follows:
Examination of approaches to evidence-based practice in ethics and anti-corruption education.
Analysis of evidence-based practice/actual example in relation to anti corruption education.
Information searching and retrival skill from a range of sources, including electronic databases and the internet.
Making judgment on case-based approach in relation of anti corruption education.
Experiencing the implementation of anti corruption education (opening unattended shops/honesty shops, unattended cafetaria etc).
Experiencing their creativity on anticorruption awareness, including arranging comics, flyers, games etc.
Digitalizing their creativity on anti corruption awareness to be posted at their school websites and hompages. E-moderators from each of the junior high schools in Semarang were responsible
for facilitation and moderation of tutorials they were designated. It was their responsibility to select a case-based article for tutorials, critique it, and generate questions or assignment for discussion. It was expected that the teachers would place a posting on the website at least twice a month. Postings were intended to stimulate critical thinking and discussion, generate debate,
provide direction etc. Following incorporation of eLearning for the course, efforts were made to insure students familiarity with the online discussion and tutorial environment. On the day of the first program, students undertook a two-hours introductory session in computer laboratory. Finally, written information explaining the online tutorials was integrated into the course booklet. After one year of implementation, a written students feedback were received
from selected 150 students. With the intention of preventing the bias in students reflection, feedback was provided on a blank sheet of a paper without mentioning their
names. Fifty-four percent of students commented positively about their eLearning
(modules on digital comics), whereas fourtysix percent developed an appreciation for
eLearning during progression of the course. Seventy-eight percent of students found out
online module and digital comics are beneficial for the development of their
critical thinking and critical appraisal skill. However, eight percent out of thirty teachers
said that they did not like the medium of eLearning, although the rest found that the
content of modules and digital comics daunting. The main obstacle of eLearning is
that the internet speed was terribly slow, especially for the digital photos and graphics.
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